13 Fredric Jameson, 'Postmodernism and Consumer Society" (2022)

Fredric Jameson has consistently drawn attention to the questions of social, economic and cultural change raised by postmodernism, andthus to the changing nature of capitalism and the continued viability of Marxism. He takes issue with the view, advanced especially bythe conservative sociologist Daniel Bell, that twentieth-century society has entered a 'post-industrial' phase, to argue, by way of ErnestMandel'sLate Capitalism, that capitalism has in fact expanded and consolidated its hegemony. He further asks how changes in capital-ism's mode of production and class relations relate to new forms of cultural production. Both Habermas and Lyotard, in Jameson's view,are indebted to an earlier cultural modernism which he feels has failed, particularly on the evidence of its architecture.

The new forms and effects of postmodernism, in literature, music, film and new physical and psychic environments, Jamesoncharacterises as matters of surface, pastiche and paranoia. But yet this depthless diaspora frustrates the analytic and political instincts ofhis Hegelian Marxism. The central problem in Jameson's accounts of postmodernism lies here. It may be summarised by saying thatwhile he accepts Baudriflard's view of present society as a society of the simulacrum, free of reference to 'reality', and even acceptsLyotard's view of Marxism as a now threadbare metanarrative, he would retain a distinction between surface and depth, within adialectical materialism which employs the concepts of totality and critical distance as necessary means to significant social and culturaltransformation.

These questions are taken up most vigorously by Warren Montag in E. Ann Kaplan (ed.), Postmodernism and its Discontents (1988),pp. 88-103. In addition to the present Introducti on and further references there (pp. 20-4 ), see the recent collection of essays,

* Reprinted from E. Ann Kaplan (ed.),Postmodernism and its Discontents (London and New York: Verso, 1988), pp. 13-29.163

Postmodern Narratives

including Jameson's response to criticisms, in Douglas Kenner (ed.),PostmodernismIjamesonlCritique (1990). The essay 'Postmodernismand Consumer Society' appeared in an earlier form in Foster (ed.), Postmodern Culture (1985). The present version combines this withmaterial from Jameson's major longer essay 'Postmodernism, or the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism' in New Left Review 146 (1984):53-92; reprinted in the volume of that title.

The concept of postmodernism is not widely accepted or even understood today. Some of the resistance to it may come from theunfamiliarity of the works it covers, which can be found in all the arts: the poetry of John Ashbery, for instance, but also the muchsimpler talk poetry that came out of the reaction against complex, ironic, academic modernist poetry in the 1960s; the reaction againstmodern architecture and in particular against the monumental buildings of the International Style, the pop buildings and decorated shedscelebrated by Robert Venturi in his manifesto, Learning from Las Vegas; Andy Warhol and Pop Art, but also the more recentPhotorealism; in music, the moment of John Cage but also the later synthesis of classical and 'popular' styles found in composers likePhilip Glass and Terry Riley, and also punk and newwave rock with such groups as the Clash, Talking Heads and the Gang of Four; infilm, everything that comes out of Godard - contemporary vanguard film and video - but also a whole new style of commercial or fictionfilms, which has its equivalent in contemporary novels as well, where the works of William Burroughs, Thomas Pynchon and IshmaelReed on the one hand, and the French new novel on the other, are also to be numbered among the varieties of what can be calledpostmodernism.

This list would seem to make two things clear at once: first, most of the postmodernisms mentioned above emerge as specific reactionsagainst the established forms of high modernism, against this or that dominant high modernism which conquered the university, themuseum, the art gallery network, and the foundations. Those formerly subversive and embattled styles - Abstract Expressionism; thegreat modernist poetry of Pound, Eliot or Wallace Stevens; the International Style (Le Corbusier, Frank Lloyd Wright, Mies); Stravinsky;Joyce, Proust and Mann - felt to be scandalous or shocking by our grandparents are, for the generation which arrives at the gate in the1960s, felt to be the establishment and the enemy - dead, stifling, canonical, the reified monuments one has to destroy to do anythingnew. This means that there will be as many different forms of postmodernism as there were high modernisms in place, since the formerare at least initially specific and local reactions


Fredric Jameson

againstthose models. That obviously does not make the job of describing postmodernism as a coherent thing any easier, since the unityof this new impulse - if it has one - is given not in itself but in the very modernism it seeks to displace.

The second feature of this list of postmodernisms is the effacement in it of some key boundaries or separations, most notably theerosion of the older distinction between high culture and so-called mass or popular culture. This is perhaps the most distressingdevelopment of all from an academic standpoint, which has traditionally had a vested interest in preserving a realm of high or 61iteculture against the surrounding environment of philistinism, of schlock and kitsch, of TV series andReader's Digest culture, and intransmitting difficult and complex skills of reading, listening and seeing to its initiates. But many of the newer postmodernisms have

been fascinated precisely by that whole landscape of advertising and motels, of the Las Vegas strip, of the late show and Grade-BHollywood film, of so-called paraliterature with its airport paperback categories of the gothic and the romance, the popular biography,the murder mystery and the science fiction or fantasy novel. They no longer 'quote' such 'texts' as a Joyce might have done, or a Mahler;they incorporate them, to the point where the line between high art and commercial forms seems increasingly difficult to draw.

A rather different indication of this effacement of the older categories of genre and discourse can be found in what is sometimes calledcontemporary theory. A generation ago there was still a technical discourse of professional philosophy - the great systems of Sartre or thephenomenologists, the work of Wittgenstein or analytical or common language philosophy - alongside which one could still distinguishthat quite different discourse of the other academic disciplines - of political science, for example, or sociology or literary criticism.Today, increasingly, we have a kind of writing simply called 'theory' which is all or none of those things at once. This new kind ofdiscourse, generally associated with France and so-called French theory, is becoming widespread and marks the end of philosophy assuch. Is the work of Michel Foucault, for example, to be called philosophy, history, social theory or political science? It's undecidable, asthey say nowadays; and I will suggest that such 'theoretical discourse' is also to be numbered among the manifestations ofpostmodernism.

Now I must say a word about the proper use of this concept: it is not just another word for the description of a particular style. It isalso, at least in my use, a periodizing concept whose function is to correlate the emergence of new formal features in culture with theemergence of a new type of social life and a new econon-dc order - what is often euphemistically called modernization, postindustrial orconsumer society, the society of the media or the spectacle, or multinational


Postmodern Narratives

capitalism. This new moment of capitalism can be dated from the postwar boom in the United States in the late 1940S and early 1950s or,in France, from the establishment of the Fifth Republic in 1958. The 1960s are in many ways the key transitional period, a period inwhich the new international order (neocolonialism, the Green Revolution, computerization and electronic information) is at one and thesame time set in place and is swept and shaken by its own internal contradictions and by external resistance. I want here to sketch a fewof the ways in which the new postmodernism expresses the inner truth of that newly emergent social order of late capitalism, but willhave to limit the description to only two of its significant features, which I will call pastiche and schizophrenia; they will give us a chanceto sense the specificity of the postmodernist experience of space and time respectively.

Pastiche eclipses parody

One of the most significant features or practices in postmodernism today is pastiche. I must first explain this term, which peoplegenerally tend to confuse with or assimilate to that related verbal phenomenon called parody. Both pastiche and parody involve theimitation or, better still, the mimicry of other styles and particularly of the mannerisms and stylistic twitches of other styles. It is obviousthat modern literature in general offers a very rich field for parody, since the great modern writers have all been defined by the inventionor production of rather unique styles: think of the Faulknerian long sentence or of D.H. Lawrence's characteristic nature imagery; think ofWallace Stevens's peculiar way of using abstractions; think also of the mannerisms of the philosophers, of Heidegger for example, orSartre; think of the musical styles of Mahler or Prokofiev. All of these styles, however, different from each other, are comparable in this:each is quite unmistakable; once one is learned, it is not likely to be confused with something else.

Now parody capitalises on the uniqueness of these styles and seizes on their idiosyncrasies an d eccentricities to produce an imitationwhich mocks the original. I won't say that the satiric impulse is conscious in all forms of parody. In any case, a good or great parodist hasto have some secret sympathy for the original, just as a great mimic has to have the capacity to put himself/herself in the place of theperson imitated. Stil l, the general effec t of parody is - whether in s ympathy or with malice - to cast ridicule on the private nature o f these

stylistic mannerisms and their excessiveness and eccentricity with respect to the way people normally speak or write. So there remainssomewhere behind all parody the


Fredric Jameson

feeling that there is a linguistic norm in contrast to which the styles of the great modernists can be mocked.

But what would happen if one no longer believed in the existence of normal language, or ordinary speech, of the linguistic norm (thekind of clarity and communicative power celebrated by Orwell in his famous essay, say)? One could think of it in this way; perhaps theimmense fragmentation and privatization of modern literature - its explosion into a host of distinct private styles and mannerisms -foreshadows deeper and more general tendencies in social life as a whole. Supposing that modem art and modernism - far from being akind of specialized aesthetic curiosity - actually anticipated social developments along these lines; supposing that in the decades since theemergence of the great modern styles society has itself begun to fragment in this way, each group coming to speak a curious privatelanguage of its own, each profession developing its private code or idiolect, and finally each individual con-ting to be a kind of linguisticisland, separated from everyone else? But then in that case, the very possibility of any linguistic norm in terms of which one couldridicule private languages and idiosyncratic styles would vanish, and we would have nothing but stylistic diversity and heterogeneity.

That is the moment at which pastiche appears and parody has become impossible. Pastiche is, like parody, the imitation of a peculiar orunique style, the wearing of a stylistic mask, speech in a dead langauge: but it is a neutral practice of such mimicry, without parody'sulterior motive, without the satirical impulse, without laughter, without that still latent feeling that there exists something normalcompared to which chat is being imitated is rather comic. Pastiche is blank parody, parody that has lost its sense of humor: pastiche is toparody what that curious thing, the modern practice of a kind of blank irony, is to what Wayne Booth calls the stable and com ic ironies

The death of the subject

But now we need to introduce a new piece into this puzzle, which may help to explain why classical modernism is a thing of the past andwhy postmodernism should have taken its place. This new component is what is generally called the 'death of the subject' or, to say it inmore conventional language, the end of individualism as such. The great modernisms were, as we have said, predicated on the inventionof a personal, private style, as unmistakable as your fingerprint, as imcomparable as your own body. But this means that the modernistaesthetic is in some way organically linked to the conception of a unique self and private identity, a unique personality and individuality,which


Postmodern Narratives

can be expected to generate its own unique vision of the world and to forge its own unique, unmistakable style.

Yet today, from any number of distinct perspectives, the social theorists, the psychoanalysts, even the linguists, not to speak of those ofus who work in the area of culture and cultural and formal change, are all exploring the notion that that kind of individualism andpersonal identity is a thing of the past; that the old individual or individualist subject is 'dead'; and that one might even describe the

concept of the unique individual and the theoretical basis of individualism as ideological. There are in fact two positions on all this, oneof which is more radical than the other. The first one is content to say: yes, once upon a time, in the classic age of competitive capitalism,in the heyday of the nuclear family and the emergence of the bourgeoisie as the hegemonic social class, there was such a thing asindividualism, as individual subjects. But today, in the age of corporate capitalism, of the so-called organization man, of bureaucracies inbusiness as well as in the state, of demographic explosion - today, that older bourgeois individual subject no longer exists.

Then there is a second position, the more radical of the two, what one might call the poststructuralist position. It adds: not only is thebourgeois individual subject a thing of the past, it is also a myth; it never really existed in the first place; there have never beenautonomous subjects of that type. Rather, this construct is merely a philosophical and cultural mystification which sought to persuadepeople that they 'had' individu al subjects and possessed this unique personal identi ty.

For our purposes, it is not particularly important to decide which of these positions is correct (or rather, which is more interesting andproductive). What we hav e to retain fro m all this is rather an aesthetic dilemma: because if t he experience an d the ideology of the unique

self, an experience and ideology which informed the stylistic practice of classical modernism, is over and done with, then it is no longerclear what the artists and writers of the present period are supposed to be doing. What is clear is merely that the older models - Picasso,Proust, T.S. Eliot - do not work any more (or are positively harmful), since nobody has that kind of unique private world and style toexpress any longer. And this is perhaps not merely a 'psychological' matter: we also have to take into account the immense weight ofseventy or eighty years of classical modernism itself. There is another sense in which the writers and artists of the present day will nolonger be able to invent new styles and worlds - they've already been invented; only a limited number of combinations are possible; theunique ones have been thought of already. So the weight of the whole modernist aesthetic tradition - now dead - also 'weighs like anightmare on'the brains of the living', as Marx said in another context.


Fredric Jameson

Hence, once again, pastiche: in a world in which stylistic innovation is no longer possible, all that is left is to imitate dead styles, tospeak through the masks and with the voices of the styles in the imaginary museum. But this means that contemporary or postmodernistart is going to be about art itself in a new kind of way; even more, it means that one of its essential messages will involve the necessaryfailure of art and the aesthetic, the failure of the new, the imprisonment in the past.

The nostalgia mode

As this may seem very abstract, I want to give a few examples, one of which is so omnipresent that we rarely link it with the kinds ofdevelopments in high art discussed here. This particular practice of pastiche is not high-cultural but very much within mass culture, and itis generally known as the 'nostalgia film' (what the French neatly can la mode r6tro - retrospective styling). We must conceive of thiscategory in the broadest way: narTowly, no doubt, it consists merely of films about the past and about specific generational moments ofthat past. Thus, one of the inaugural films in this new 'genre' (if that's what it is) was Lucas'sAmerican Graffiti, which in 1973 set out torecapture all the atmosphere and stylistic peculiarities of the 1950s United States, the United States of the Eisenhower era. Polanski'sgreat film Chinatown does something similar for the 1930s, as does Bertolucci's The Conformist for the Italian and European context ofthe same period, the fascist era in Italy; and so forth. We could go on listing these films for some time: why call them pastiche? Are theynot rather work in the more traditional genre known as the historical film - work which can more simply be theorised by extrapolatingthat other well-known form which is the historical novel?

I have my reasons for thinking that we need new categories for such films. But let me first add some anomalies: supposing I suggestedthat Star Wars is also a nostalgic film. What could that mean? I presume we can agree that this is not a historical film about our ownintergalactic past. Let me put it somewhat differently: one of the most important cultural experiences of the generations that grew upfrom the 1930s to the 1950s was the Saturday afternoon serial of the Buck Rogers type - alien villains, true American heroes, heroines indistress, the death ray or the doomsday box, and the diffhanger at the end whose miraculous resolution was to be witnessed next Saturdayafternoon. Star Wars reinvents this experience in the form of a pastiche: that is, there is no longer any point to a parody of such serialssince they are long extinct. Star Wars, far from being a pointless satire of such now dead forms, satisfies a deep (might I even say

repressed?) longing to experience them


What does Fredric Jameson say about postmodernism? ›

According to Jameson, postmodernity has transformed the historical past into a series of emptied-out stylizations (what Jameson terms pastiche) that can then be commodified and consumed. (See the next module on pastiche.) The result is the threatened victory of capitalist thinking over all other forms of thought.

What is postmodernism and consumer society? ›

He discussed two features of postmodernism--the transformation of reality into images and the fragmentation of time into a series of perpetual presents. In this way, then, postmodernism replicates or reproduces or reinforces the logic of consumer capitalism.

What is postmodernism consumerism? ›

In our postmodern society, few things play the influential role in our lives consumerism does. Consumption is intimately tied to the creation and production of a sense of self. Few would argue that products are imbued with a greater significance than what their primary function may be.

What is Fredric Jameson known for? ›

He is best known for his analysis of contemporary cultural trends, particularly his analysis of postmodernity and capitalism. Jameson's best-known books include Postmodernism, or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism (1991) and The Political Unconscious (1981).

What does Jameson mean by late capitalism? ›

In general, Jameson understands "late capitalism" as the pervasive condition of our own age, a condition that speaks both to economic and cultural structures: "What 'late' generally conveys is... the sense that something has changed, that things are different, that we have gone through a transformation of the life ...

How is modernism different from postmodernism? ›

Modernism is a school of thought that took place in late 1800s and early 1900s while postmodernism is a school of thought that took place after World War II. 2. Modernism advocated rational thinking and the use of science and reason for the advancement of man while postmodernism believed in the irrationality of things.

When was Postmodernism and consumer Society published? ›

It is now some fifteen years since Consumer Culture and Postmodernism was published in 1991, with many of the original versions of the various chapters in the book having been written in the period 1983 to 1990.

What is postmodernism culture? ›

Postmodern culture is characterized by the valuing of activities, events, and perspectives that emphasize the particular over the global or the fragment over the whole. This reversal of a modernist ideology necessitates a valuation of variation and flexibility in the cultural sphere.

What does consumerist society mean? ›

a society in which people often buy new goods, and that places a high value on owning things: In a consumer society, there may be no better measure of how people feel than what they buy. Warhol's pop art style was intended to make a comment on the consumer society of the 1960s.

What are examples of postmodernism? ›

The clearest example would be the death bunny scene where a rabbit slaughters men. Intentional or not, these works of art belong on the Postmodern film list because they subverted expectations and gave audiences something they couldn't have anticipated long before that was more en vogue.

What are some of Baudrillard's main ideas? ›

Jean Baudrillard has been referred to as "the high priest of postmodernism." Baudrillard's key ideas include two that are often used in discussing postmodernism in the arts: "simulation" and "the hyperreal." The hyperreal is "more real than real": something fake and artificial comes to be more definitive of the real ...

When did we become consumers? ›

The notion of human beings as consumers first took shape before World War I, but became commonplace in America in the 1920s.

Is Fredric Jameson a Marxist? ›

Fredric Jameson (1934-), a critical theorist and Marxist philosopher who has written numerous books and articles on critical theory, is recognized as the first thinker who brought postmodernism's critical theory into architectural discourse.

What is language according to postmodernism? ›

Language refers to and represents a reality outside itself. According to postmodernists, language is not such a “mirror of nature,” as the American pragmatist philosopher Richard Rorty characterized the Enlightenment view.

What is Depthlessness according to Jameson? ›

Arguing that postmodern cultural trends and practices were cultural expressions of deeper economic structures of new forms of capitalism, Jameson suggested that postmodernity converts all art forms into commodities. Such a commodification of art implies a culture of surface appearance rather than depth.

What happens in late stage capitalism? ›

In modern usage, late capitalism often refers to a new mix of high-tech advances, the concentration of (speculative) financial capital, post-Fordism, and a growing income inequality.

What are the stages of capitalism? ›

The Marxist periodization of capitalism into the stages: agricultural capitalism, merchant capitalism, industrial capitalism and state capitalism. Another periodization includes merchant capitalism, industrial and finance capitalism, and global capitalism.

Who is the father of postmodernism? ›

FOLLOWING the great American modernist poets of the first decades of the 20th century -- Pound, Eliot, Williams -- Charles Olson is the father of the "postmodernists" of the second half of the century, bridging Pound & Co. to such major poets as Robert Duncan and Robert Creeley.

What is the purpose of postmodernism? ›

Postmodernism is best understood as a questioning of the ideas and values associated with a form of modernism that believes in progress and innovation. Modernism insists on a clear divide between art and popular culture. But like modernism, postmodernism does not designate any one style of art or culture.

What influenced postmodernism? ›

Radical movements and trends regarded as influential and potentially as precursors to postmodernism emerged around World War I and particularly in its aftermath.

What are 3 models of consumer culture identified by Featherstone? ›

Consumer culture has been studied in three key ways 1.) “the production of consumption”, 2.) “modes of consumption” and 3.) “the emotional and aesthetic pleasures” of consumption.

What is schizophrenia in postmodernism? ›

This essay examines the postmodern idea that the schizophrenic process can be seen as a strategy of disruption, to be directed against the stability and productive forces of modern capitalism.

What is hyperspace Jameson? ›

This hyperspace, which emerges out of postmodernism, is, according to Jameson, directly linked to the concept of late capitalism. Jameson refers to this mode of capitalism as a "postindustrial society" whose "multinational capitalism" and new pervasive forms of media and technology replace the pre-World War II society.

How does postmodernism influence society? ›

Postmodernism affects views and lifestyles, which in turn affects the young adult's performance of roles and his interactions within all his different social systems. A strong attachment to family and home, as well as the importance of roles as sons/daughters were found.

What is postmodernism society? ›

In philosophy and critical theory postmodernity refers to the state or condition of society which is said to exist after modernity, a historical condition that marks the reasons for the end of modernity. This usage is ascribed to the philosophers Jean-François Lyotard and Jean Baudrillard.

What are the important features of postmodernism as Analysed by Jameson? ›

For Jameson, postmodernism is a forced but highly permeating field, given that cultures are formed through mass media ("mass culture"). This so-called mass culture indirectly forces us to shape our ideologies and brings us under the influence of media culture—a process that Jameson calls hegemony.

What are the characteristics of consumer society? ›

Basic characteristics of consumer culture can be summarized in the transforming of needs to desires, utilitarian/hedonic needs-values, commodity fetishism, conspicuous leisure and consumption, cultural values, aestheticization, alienation, differentiation and speed.

What is an example of a consumer society? ›

Consumer culture is culture that evolves around products, services and brands that is well beyond the control of the producer. For example, the fan culture that surrounds a media series.

What are benefits of consumer society? ›

Increases economic output and creates jobs. Leads to increases in wealth for companies. Promotes competition between companies. Allows for a large variety of goods and services.

What is schizophrenia in postmodernism? ›

This essay examines the postmodern idea that the schizophrenic process can be seen as a strategy of disruption, to be directed against the stability and productive forces of modern capitalism.

How do modernists and postmodernists interpret the roles of the author and the reader differently? ›

The key difference between modernism and postmodernism in literature is that modernist authors deliberately broke away from traditional styles of writing and focused on inner self and consciousness in their writings whereas postmodernist writers deliberately used a mixture of earlier styles in their writings.

How will you describe the Marxism approach? ›

Marxism is a social, political, and economic philosophy named after Karl Marx. It examines the effect of capitalism on labor, productivity, and economic development and argues for a worker revolution to overturn capitalism in favor of communism.

What is waning of affect in literature? ›

A feature of the new depthlessness in art attributed to the cultural transformation known as postmodernism as described in Fredric Jameson's essay 'Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism' (1984).

What does Deleuze mean by schizophrenic? ›

For Deleuze and Guattari, the schizophrenic is a zero-intensity body without organs (BwO); whereas the schizo's body is a surface on which to record the flows of desire. Similarly, society has its own BwO, on which the flows of capital are inscribed.

Is Capitalism and Schizophrenia? ›

Capitalism and Schizophrenia (French: Capitalisme et Schizophrénie) is a two-volume theoretical work by the French authors Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, respectively a philosopher and a psychoanalyst. Its volumes are Anti-Oedipus (1972, translated in 1977) and A Thousand Plateaus (1980, translated in 1987).

Is modernism a movement? ›

Modernism refers to a global movement in society and culture that from the early decades of the twentieth century sought a new alignment with the experience and values of modern industrial life.

What are the 5 characteristics of postmodernism? ›

Many postmodernists hold one or more of the following views: (1) there is no objective reality; (2) there is no scientific or historical truth (objective truth); (3) science and technology (and even reason and logic) are not vehicles of human progress but suspect instruments of established power; (4) reason and logic ...

What is the main focus of postmodernism? ›

As a philosophy, postmodernism rejects concepts of rationality, objectivity, and universal truth. Instead, it emphasizes the diversity of human experience and multiplicity of perspectives.

Who is the father of postmodernism? ›

FOLLOWING the great American modernist poets of the first decades of the 20th century -- Pound, Eliot, Williams -- Charles Olson is the father of the "postmodernists" of the second half of the century, bridging Pound & Co. to such major poets as Robert Duncan and Robert Creeley.

What is the main purpose of Marxism? ›

As we all know, the main goal of Marxism is to achieve a classless society throughout the world. As great as this sounds to most people, there are many Capitalist ideologies which would have to be eliminated before this could ever happen.

What is the Marxist view of society? ›

Marx argues that there are inequalities in society based on social class differences. Marx claims that to improve society and make it fairer there needs to be large-scale change. Marxism is criticised for ignoring other important factors such as gender and ethnicity, focusing too much on social class.

What are the main points of Marxism? ›

Six Key Ideas of Karl Marx
  • Capitalist society is divided into two classes.
  • The Bourgeoisie exploit the Proletariat.
  • Those with economic power control other social institutions.
  • Ideological control.
  • False consciousness.
  • Revolution and Communism.
22 Nov 2015

What is Depthlessness according to Jameson? ›

Arguing that postmodern cultural trends and practices were cultural expressions of deeper economic structures of new forms of capitalism, Jameson suggested that postmodernity converts all art forms into commodities. Such a commodification of art implies a culture of surface appearance rather than depth.

What are the different type of affect? ›

The five types of affect are broad affect, restricted affect, blunted affect, flat affect, and liable affect. These types are ordered from typical behavior to atypical behavior.

Who developed the affect theory? ›

Affect theory is originally attributed to the psychologist Silvan Tomkins, introduced in the first two volumes of his book Affect Imagery Consciousness (1962).

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