|Meaning, scope and development of Anthropology|
- Relationships with other disciplines: Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities.
- Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance:
- Social-cultural Anthropology.
- Biological Anthropology.
- Archaeological Anthropology.
- Linguistic Anthropology.
- Human Evolution and the emergence of Man:
- Biological and Cultural factors in human evolution.
- Theories of Organic Evolution (Pre- Darwinian, Darwinian and Post-Darwinian).
- Synthetic theory of evolution; Brief outline of terms and concepts of evolutionary biology (Doll’s rule, Cope’s rule, Gause’s rule, parallelism, convergence, adaptive radiation, and mosaic evolution).
- Characteristics of Primates; Evolutionary Trend and Primate Taxonomy; Primate Adaptations; (Arboreal and Terrestrial) Primate Taxonomy; Primate Behaviour; Tertiary and Quaternary fossil primates; Living Major Primates; Comparative Anatomy of Man and Apes; Skeletal changes due to erect posture and its implications.
- Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution of the following:
- Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities.
- Homo erectus: Africa (Paranthropus), Europe (Homo erectus heidelbergensis), Asia (Homo erectus javanicus, Homo erectus pekinensis).
- Neanderthal Man- La-Chapelle-aux-saints (Classical type), Mt. Carmel (Progressive type).
- Rhodesian man.
- Homo sapiens — Cromagnon, Grimaldi and Chancelade.
- The biological basis of life: The Cell, DNA structure and replication, Protein Synthesis, Gene, Mutation, Chromosomes, and Cell Division.
- Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology. Chronology: Relative and Absolute Dating methods.
- Cultural Evolution- Broad Outlines of Prehistoric cultures:
- Copper-Bronze Age
- Iron Age
|The Nature of Culture|
- The concept and characteristics of culture and civilization; Ethnocentrism vis-à-vis cultural Relativism.
- The Nature of Society: Concept of Society; Society and Culture; Social Institutions; Social groups; and Social stratification.
- Marriage: Definition and universality; Laws of marriage (endogamy, exogamy, hypergamy, hypogamy, incest taboo); Types of marriage (monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, group marriage). Functions of marriage; Marriage regulations (preferential, prescriptive and proscriptive); Marriage payments (bride wealth and dowry).
- Family: Definition and universality; Family, household and domestic groups; functions of family; Types of family (from the perspectives of structure, blood relation, marriage, residence and succession); Impact of urbanization, industrialization and feminist movements on family.
- Kinship: Consanguinity and Affinity; Principles and types of descent (Unilineal, Double, Bilateral, Ambilineal); Forms of descent groups (lineage, clan, phratry, moiety and kindred); Kinship terminology (descriptive and classificatory); Descent, Filiation and Complementary Filiation; Descent and Alliance.
- Meaning, scope and relevance of economic anthropology; Formalist and Substantivist debate; Principles governing the production, distribution and exchange (reciprocity, redistribution and market), in communities, subsisting on hunting and gathering, fishing, swiddening, pastoralism, horticulture, and agriculture; globalization and indigenous economic systems.
|Political organization and Social Control|
- Band, tribe, chiefdom, kingdom and state; concepts of power, authority and legitimacy; social control, law and justice in simple societies.
- Anthropological approaches to the study of religion (evolutionary, psychological and functional); monotheism and polytheism; sacred and profane; myths and rituals; forms of religion in tribal and peasant societies (animism, animatism, fetishism, naturism and totemism); religion, magic and science distinguished; magico- religious functionaries (priest, shaman, medicine man, sorcerer and witch).
- Classical evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan and Frazer)
- Historical particularism (Boas); Diffusionism (British, German and American)
- Functionalism (Malinowski); Structural- functionalism (Radcliffe-Brown)
- Structuralism (L’evi – Strauss and E. Leach)
- Culture and personality (Benedict, Mead, Linton, Kardiner and Cora – du Bois).
- Neo – evolutionism (Childe, White, Steward, Sahlins and Service)
- Cultural materialism (Harris)
- Symbolic and interpretive theories (Turner, Schneider and Geertz)
- Cognitive theories (Tyler, Conklin)
- Postmodernism in anthropology
|Culture, language and communication|
- Nature, origin and characteristics of language; verbal and non-verbal communication; social context of language use.
|Research methods in anthropology|
- Fieldwork tradition in anthropology
- The distinction between technique, method and methodology
- Tools of data collection: observation, interview, schedules, questionnaire, Case study, genealogy, life-history, oral history, secondary sources of information, participatory methods.
- Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.
- Methods and Application: Methods for the study of genetic principles in the man-family study (pedigree analysis, twin study, foster child, co-twin method, cytogenetic method, chromosomal and karyotype analysis), biochemical methods, immunological methods, D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies.
- Mendelian genetics in the man-family study, single factor, multifactor, lethal, sub-lethal and polygenic inheritance in man.
- Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population, Hardy-Weinberg law; causes and changes which bring down frequency – mutation, isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding and genetic drift. Consanguineous and non-consanguineous mating, genetic load, genetic effect of consanguineous and cousin marriages.
- Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man, methodology.
- Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders).
- Sex chromosomal aberrations – Klinefelter (XXY), Turner (XO), Super female (XXX), intersex and other syndromic disorders.
- Autosomal aberrations – Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and Cri-du-chat syndromes.
- Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic screening, genetic counselling, human DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome study.
- Race and racism, biological basis of morphological variation of non-metric and metric characters. Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to heredity and environment; biological basis of racial classification, racial differentiation and race crossing in man.
- Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker- ABO, Rh blood groups, HLA Hp, transferring, Gm, blood enzymes. Physiological characteristics-Hb level, body fat, pulse rate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in different cultural and socio-economic groups.
- Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology. Bio-cultural Adaptations – Genetic and Non- genetic factors. Man’s physiological responses to environmental stresses: hot desert, cold, high altitude climate.
- Epidemiological Anthropology: Health and disease. Infectious and non-infectious diseases. Nutritional deficiency-related diseases.
|Concept of human growth and development|
- Stages of growth – prenatal, natal, infant, childhood, adolescence, maturity, senescence. Factors affecting growth and development are genetic, environmental, biochemical, nutritional, cultural and socio-economic. Ageing and senescence. Theories and observations – biological and chronological longevity. Human physique and somatotypes. Methodologies for growth studies.
|Demographic theories- biological, social and cultural|
- Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bio events to fertility. Fertility patterns and differentials.
- Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility, natality and mortality.
|Applications of Anthropology|
- Anthropology of sports, Nutritional anthropology, Anthropology in designing of defence and other equipment, Forensic Anthropology, Methods and principles of personal identification and reconstruction, Applied human genetics – Paternity diagnosis, genetic counselling and eugenics, DNA technology in diseases and medicine, serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology.